Monday, February 29, 2016


Genesis 1 – Creation of Heavens and Earth - 1.1 – In the beginning Elohim created – In Hebrew literally reads, “In the beginning Elohim, Aleph Tov created… Aleph Tov are the first and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet—this depicts the presence of both the Father and the Son at creation (John 1.1-3). This also parallels Alpha Omega in the Greek as found in Revelation.

Elohim – appears 2597 times in the OT. Conveys the meaning of “mighty ones” and can also denote the singular “mighty one.” Most often used in reference to Yahweh, but also applies to false deities, angels, and mankind. Today the word God is used in its place—this is a poor replacement word.

Created – from the Hebrew bara, which refers to original or new creation. Only Elohim can create in the sense implied by bara. The verb expresses creation out of nothing, an idea seen clearly in passages having to do with creation on a cosmic scale (Gen 1.1; 2.3; Isaiah 40.26; 42.5). It also supports “The Big Bang” theory.

Genesis 1.2 – without form – Heb tow-hoo, to lie waste. Void – Heb emptiness or void. The Hebrew sense is that there is no time gap between Gen 1.1 and 1.2

Genesis 1.6 – firmament – which was between the water canopy above (atmosphere) and the oceans below. The three heavens = the atmosphere, outer space, and heaven. Elohim’s abode is heaven.

Genesis 1.14 – seasons = Hebrew moed = primarily refers to Yahweh’s appointed times (Lev 23.1). The word moed means = “an appointed time, festival, or congregation.” See Ps 104.19 (moedim = seasons). Also Gen 17.21 set time.

Genesis 1.26 – man in our image = Yahweh makes His people after His nature and physical likeness. The form Yashua came in was the likeness of Yahweh.

Genesis – Creation of Man and Woman - 2.3 – sanctified = Hebrew kaw-dash = set apart, dedicate; to make special. This is the first mention of the Sabbath. Yahweh rested on this seventh day blessing it and setting it apart. This is a special sign between Him and His people (Ex 31.13).

Genesis 2.4 – LORD GOD = Yahweh is the personal and proper name of the “Mighty One of Israel” as close as we can tell from the tetragramon of YHVH. Some use Jehovah but Yahweh seems closer. Yahweh means, “Self- Existent” or “Eternal.”

Genesis 2.7 – man became a living soul = soul = nephesh same word as in Gen 1.20 “life” and in 1.21 “creature”. The soul or nephesh occurs 754 times in the OT. In Greek the word = Psuche = man and the life of man that can be lost, destroyed or saved. It is also rendered “self, mind, heart.” The soul that sins shall die (Ezekiel 18.4, 20). It is often used as man being mortal and subject to death…the wages of sin is death.

Genesis 2.17 –“… the day you eat thereof thou shalt surely die.” The process of human (soul) death would begin once sin was introduced to the earth. No longer would man be able to live forever in paradise = gan edan in Hebrew.

Genesis 2.24 – “…shall cleave unto his wife.” To be joined, hold fast. They shall be one flesh. Not literally one person but one in purpose and mind – bound together.

Genesis 3 – Satan’s Deception - 3.1 – “The serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field. Serpent = Hebrew = nachash, meaning, “to hiss”, i.e. a whisperer, spell, prognosticate, enchantment”. Nachash also means, “to shine”.  Satan is often referred to as “an angel of light” (2 Cor 11.14). Was the serpent a shining being which captivated Eve?

Genesis 3.4-5 – “…you shall surely not die…but shall be as the mighty ones.” The first lie in the Bible was that Eve would not die but that she would become as a mighty one (God). This was a direct contradiction of Yahweh’s promise of death if they ate of the fruit of this tree.

Genesis 3.15 – enmity between…this is a prophetic statement predicting the future destruction of Satan by Yahshua the Messiah (Rom 16.20; Ps 91.13).

Genesis 3.16-17 – sorrow = toil. Conception = pregnancy. Rule = dominion, have power…first concept of marriage.

Genesis 3.20 – Mother of all living…Eve = Hebrew = Chavvah = life spring. Her name, “Mother of all living,” contradicts the notion that a separate race existed apart from mankind.

Genesis 4 – Cain Murders Abel - 4.1 – Cain = “acquired” the first born of Adam and Eve. He was a tiller of the ground. Abel = breath or vapor; second son was a keeper of sheep.

Genesis 4.3 – “…in the process of time…” The time, place, and offering were apparently a moedim (appointed time), which would have been a shadow of Passover. Cain brought his offering from the ground, which Yahweh had cursed in Gen 3.17. Abel brought from the flock a blood offering—the first born of the flock = firstling. Yahweh was not pleased with Cain’s offering.

Genesis 4.7 – “If thou do well shall you not be accepted?” God is telling Cain to rethink his offering. This is a shadow of Yahshua’s death on the cross—offering up His blood for our sins.

Genesis 4.8-11 – “…your brother’s blood cries out from the earth…” Not literally but figuratively or symbolically of Cain’s guilt. Also see: Cloud of witnesses (Hebrews 12.1) and Souls under the altar (Rev 6.11) for figurative speech.

Genesis 4.19 – Lamech was the first biblical person to have two wives. Note: Yahweh never instructed man to have more than one wife.

Genesis 4.26 – “…then began men to call upon the name of the LORD (Yahweh).” The Jewish Targums say that at this time men began to call their idols by the name Yahweh or Baali, which means master. The word “began” in the Hebrew is chalal and means = “to profane, defile, pollute, desecrate, begin to violate (a covenant) to profane (the name of Yahweh).

Genesis 5 – Generations of Adam through Noah - 5.21 – Enoch = “dedicated one, follower.” Enoch walked with Yahweh.

Genesis 5.24 – “Enoch walked with Elohim (Gen 6.9) and Elohim took him. Hebrews 11.5 says that Enoch was translated or transferred so that he should not see death. The Greek word “translated” = Metatithemi and means, “carried over” which is how it is used in Acts 7.16 when describing how Jacob died in Egypt and was carried over to Sychem  to be buried. The tense in Hebrew is conditional future, so that “he should not die” in a temporary sense. Later, in Hebrews 11.13 Enoch is included with the other saints as those having died and not received the promise (of everlasting life).

Genesis 5.27 – Methuselah in the Hebrew means “When he is dead it shall be sent.” His name was a prophecy about the coming flood…he died just before it began.

Genesis 6 – Evil of Man - 6.2 –“…the sons of Elohim saw the daughters of men…took them for wives.” This has been interpreted various ways. 1. Fallen angels made marriages with women of earth. Yahshua, in Matt 22.30, says angels are not given in marriage. 2. Higher classes made marriage with lower class. 3. The line of righteous Seth made marriages with wicked line of Cain. This view is the most favored because the passage only refers to man’s sins and evil thoughts. Nothing is said about angels. A similar passage is Deut 7.1-5, where Israel is warned about intermarriage with pagan nations. “Sons of Elohim” is a common reference to mankind = Matt 5.9; Luke 3.38; Rom 8.14; Gal 3.26. Sometimes, however, it does refer to angels (Job 38.7). In Jewish writings the third opinion is accepted.

Genesis 6.4 – “…giants in the earth….” In Hebrew the word “giants” is nefel = apostates, or tyrants, giants…derived from Hebrew Nephilim = “bullies or tyrants”. It says these giants existed after the sons of Elohim came unto the daughters of men. The Nephilim were also found after the flood in Numbers 13.33. They most likely are not a marriage of angels and mankind—but just a society of large men who were bullies and tyrants—perhaps a mutant tribe.

Genesis 6.10 – Noah’s sons become the fathers of the generation after the flood. Abraham is from Shem’s line…also the word “Semite” comes from Shem.

Genesis 6.16 – A cubit is the measure from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. It is estimated to be 18 inches. The ark then was 450 ft. long. 75 ft. wide, and 45 ft. high, about the size of a modern oil tanker.

Genesis 6.19 – Noah commanded to take a pair of all animals. This would include what would later be clean and unclean animals.

Genesis 7 – The Great Flood - 7.2 – Now we see Noah is also commanded to take in the clean animals by sevens, literally seven sevens which could mean seven pairs or 49 of the clean—one extra. We also see an awareness of clean and unclean. We will see later why Yahweh told Noah to take extra clean animals into the ark.

Genesis 7.6 – Noah spent 100 years building the ark (Gen 5.32).

Genesis 7.12 – Forty days and nights the rains came. Forty is the number of testing…we see Yahshua tested in the desert for 40 days and the children of Israel tested in the wilderness for 40 years.

Genesis 8 – The Flood Waters Abate - 8.20 – Noah now makes an offering to Yahweh with the extra clean animals he was told to bring on board. Note it was a blood offering---just as righteous Abel offered.

Genesis 9 – Elohim Makes a Covenant with Noah - 9.3 – “Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat (food) for you….” Before Adam’s sin all mankind and animals subsisted on plant life, as found in the Garden of Eden (Gen 1.29-30).

Genesis 9.4 – Yahweh commands Noah to abstain from eating the blood (Lev 3.17 and Acts 15.20) which was later confirmed in the giving of the law on Mt. Sinai.

Genesis 9.5-6 – Man is to abstain from murder…Yahweh was already making His law known to the righteous…death is the penalty for sin...sin is lawbreaking (1 John 3.4).

Genesis 9.7 – Be fruitful and multiply…have children. Only a man and a woman can be “fruitful” in this way.

Genesis 9.8-17 – Describes the Noahic Covenant…earth would not be destroyed by water again.

Genesis 9.18 – Ham is the father of Canaan. This was the land Israel would later inherit. Canaan became a pagan tribe given over to idols and child sacrifice.

Genesis 9.22 – Ham saw the nakedness of his father Noah…the rabbis believe this was more than seeing his father naked but perhaps incest—the reason for the harsh penalty in 9.25.

Genesis 10 – The Generations of Noah’s Sons - 10.1-8 – List’s the generations of the sons of Noah. In Jewish writings these are the original 70 nations of mankind in the earth. Note: Numbers 29:12-34 details the offerings for the seven days of the Feast of Tabernacles. 13 Bulls are offered the first day, twelve on the second, eleven on the third, etc. 13+12+11+10+9+8+7=70. It has been suggested that this is for atonement of the seventy nations. More on this in chapter 46.

Genesis 10 details the 70 nations that were born after the flood. “These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, by their nations; and out of these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.” Genesis 10:32. Note: the word Semite comes from the root Shem.

Genesis 10.8-9 – Nimrod = rebel, as “in your face”. Known to be an opponent of Yahweh. Great-grandson of Noah’s son Ham. His rule extended across what was Assyria and Babylonia. Said to have built the tower of Babel.

Genesis 10.21 – Eber = regions beyond the river. Hebrew means = “one who has crossed over”. Abraham was called by God and “crossed over” the Euphrates River. Eber is the root for the name Hebrew. Abraham is the first one to be called Hebrew. Eber lived 430 years and was related to Abraham and would have known Abraham and Isaac (ref 11.16-26).

Genesis 11 – The Confounding of Language - 11.1 – “…the whole earth was of one language. It is assumed here that “Hebrew” was the world’s language at the time as Hebrew is considered the language of Yahweh (ref: Acts 26.14 and 1 Corinthians 13.1).

Genesis 11.3-4 – “Make bricks and burn them….” Bricks are all the same size and shape verses stones which are of many sizes and shapes…this is the first New World Order and attempt at one world government.

“Let us make a name” is a declaration of independence from Yahweh. Babel means = “confusion” and Babylon becomes the mother of all false religion and deception (Rev 17.5) which will be destroyed at Yahshua’s second coming (Rev18.21).

Genesis 11.31-32 – Ur of the Chaldees (Babylon). Known for commerce and idolatry. Moon goddess was worshiped here. Abraham’s father and family were told to leave. They were to separate from idolatry and deception and go to the promised land of Canaan a shadow of Yahweh’s kingdom.

Sunday, February 28, 2016



The Law: Exodus 24:9-10... Then Moses went up, also Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, and they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity.


Job 1:6-12...Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them. And the Lord said to Satan, “From where do you come?” So Satan answered the Lord and said, “From going to and fro on the earth, and from walking back and forth on it.” Then the Lord said to Satan, “Have you considered My servant Job, that there is none like him on the earth, a blameless and upright man, one who fears God and shuns evil.


The Writings: 1 Kings 22:19-23...Then he said, Hear thou, therefore, the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne and all the host of the heavens standing by him on his right hand and on his left. And the LORD said, Who shall persuade Ahab that he may go up and fall at Ramothgilead?


Job 15:7-8...Wast thou born before Adam? Or wast thou formed before the hills? Hast thou heard the secret of God, that thou dost detain wisdom in thee alone?


Psalm 89:5-7...And the heavens shall praise thy wonder, O LORD, thy truth also in the congregation of the saints (Hebrew =heavenly beings). For who in the heavens can be compared unto the LORD? Who among the sons of the mighty can be likened unto the LORD? God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the saints and to be had in reverence of all those that are about him.


Psalm 103:19-22...The LORD has prepared his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all. Bless the LORD, ye his angels, valiant and strong, that do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word. Bless ye the LORD, all ye his hosts, ye ministers of his, that do his pleasure. Bless the LORD, all his works in all places of his dominion: bless the LORD, O my soul.


From Creation to the MK: Genesis 1:26...And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the fowl of the air and over the beasts and over all the earth and over every serpent that moves upon the earth.


Job 38:7...when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?


Daniel 7:9-14...I beheld until thrones were placed, and an Elder of great age did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool: his throne a flame of fire, his wheels burning fire…. thousands of thousands served him, and ten thousands of ten thousands stood before him; the Judge sat down, and the books were opened.


They had also taken from the other beasts their rule because their lives had been prolonged until a certain time. I saw in the vision of the night, and, behold, in the clouds of heaven like a Son of man that came and drew near unto the Elder of great age, and they brought him near before him. And he gave him dominion and glory and kingdom; and all the peoples, nations, and tongues served him: his dominion is an eternal dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom such that it shall never be corrupted.


Heaven Full of Divine Beings:

Ps 82:1, 6...God has taken his place in the divine council; In the midst of the gods he holds judgment--I say, You are gods, sons of the Most High, all of you.


Ps 89:5-8...Your wonders, O LORD, are praised by the heavens, Your faithfulness, too, in the assembly of holy beings. For who in the skies can equal the LORD, Can compare with the LORD among the divine beings, A God greatly dreaded in the council of holy beings, held in awe by all around Him?


Ps 103:19-21...The LORD has established his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all. Bless the LORD, O you his angels, you mighty ones who do his bidding, obedient to his spoken word. Bless the LORD, all his hosts, his ministers that do his will.


Ps 29:1 (Ascribe to the LORD, O heavenly beings, ascribe to the LORD glory and strength).


Names of the Council:

The gatherings of Gods servants have several titles: “mount of assembly Isa 14:13, camp of God Gen 32:2 “company” [of destroying angels] — Ps 78:49 “Council of God Job 15:8, 29:4 “council of YHVH” Jer 23:18, 22 “congregation of God”— Ps 82:1 “assembly of holy ones” Ps 89:5-7


Names of Council Members:

The heavenly beings and servants of YHVH have several descriptive titles. This variety of terminology suggests that the constituency of the council held considerable interest for the Israelites. In other words, as the beings serve different functions they are titled accordingly. For example, a “messenger could also be a soldier in YHVHs army or a minister in the temple.Following is a representative list of various names for members of YHVHs council.


“gods/divine beings” — Ps 8:6 (Eng 5), 82:1, 86:8, 97:7; 138:1 sons of (the true) God Gen 6:2 108; Deut 32:8;109 Job 1:6, 2:1, 38:7; cf. Dan 3:25 mighty ones Ps 78:25, 103:20 sons of God/gods Ps 29:1, 89:6 sons of the Most High Ps 82:6

 warriors Deut 33:2b-3; Zech 14:5; Joel 4:11; Ps 68:17; 103:19-20 mighty ones Isa 13:3; troops Job 19:12, 25:3 guardians (of the people) Deut 33:3 111 living creatures Ezek 1:5, 13-22host Dan 4:32 (Eng 35) cherubim Gen 3:24; Exod 25:18-22; Ezek 10:1-20 “umpire/arbiter” — Job 9:33 messenger/angel numerous: Gen 19:1; 28:12;32:2-7; 2 Sam 24:16; Zech 1-5; Pss 8:5, 91:11, 103:20,148:2  messenger of God numerous: Gen 21:17, 31:11, 48:16; Exod 14:19; Jud 13:9; 2 Sam 24:16

 messenger of YHVH numerous: Gen 16:7-11,22:11, 24:7, Exod 3:2, 23:20; Num 22:22-35; Jud 2:1,5:23, 6:11-22, 13:3-21; 2 Kgs 1:3; 19:35;Zech 1:9, 3:1-6; Ps 34:8; 1 Chr 21:12-30.

 intercessor, angel mediator Job 33:23 112 ravager Isa 54:16 113

minister Ps 103:21; 104:4 “servants” — Job 4:18 witness Ps 89:38 114; Job 16:19 (or is this God himself?)

watcher(s) Dan 4: 10, 14, 20 (Eng 13, 17, 23) pillars of heaven Job 26:11 host/army Jos 5:14-15; 1 Kgs 22:19;    Isa 24:21;Jer 19:13; Zeph 1:5 ; Pss 103:21, 148:2; Neh 9:6 host of heaven 1 Kg 22:19; Isa 24:21, 34:4;Dan 8:10; Neh 9:6                                                                                                                                                                                                                holy ones Deut 33:2-3 117; Hos 12:1; Zech 14:5;Pss 16:3, 89:5, 7, 8; Prov 9:10?, 30:3?; Job 5:1, 15:15;Dan 8:13

 spirit (rare) 1 Kgs 22:21-23; Ps 104:4 those on high Job 21:22 “prince(s)” — Jos 5:14, 15; Dan 10:13, 20, 21; 12:1 serafim Isa 6:2, 6


Other Indications of the Divine Council:


Plural verbs and pronouns.  Other evidence for a heavenly assembly includes the use of plural pronouns and verbs in statements attributed to God. Three of these occur in Genesis 1-11.

Gen 1:26 Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness

Gen 3:22 The man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil

Gen 11:7 Come, let us go down


·     Jewish commentators generally held that these plurals were used because God was addressing his heavenly court.

·     The early post-Apostolic Fathers (e.g., Barnabas, Justin Martyr) saw the plurals as a

reference to the pre-incarnate Jesus and a foreshadow of the Trinity.

·     Recent scholars, however, tend to agree with ancient Jewish opinion, believing that the interpretation of the Fathers was anachronistic (meaning: One that is out of its proper or chronological order, especially a person or practice that belongs to an earlier time) and that the HB writers had no such conception in mind.  (i.e. the pre-incarnate Jesus or the Trinity concept).


Courtroom Settings:  Plurals, such as these in Genesis, commonly occur in the book of Isaiah. For example, the statement in Isaiah 6:8 (Whom shall I send, and will go for us?) likely, this reflects the idea that God was surrounded by the court which is made up of his heavenly judicial councillors. Similarly, the court room scene in Isaiah 41 contains several plural pronouns:


Set forth your case, says the LORD; bring your proofs, says the King of Jacob. Let them bring them, and tell us what is to happen. Tell us the former things, what they are, so that we may consider them, and that we may know their outcome; or declare to us the things to come. Tell us what is to come hereafter, that we may know that you are gods [elohim] do good, or do harm, that we may be afraid and terrified. (vv. 21-23)


In Isaiah 40:1-8, the second person plural imperatives and the reference to various voices indicate a heavenly council session, which apparently included the prophet himself:

1 Comfort O comfort my people

2 Speak tenderly to Jerusalem . . . and cry to her

3 A voice cries out

6 A voice says

6 And I [the prophet?] said


When the council gathers for legal purposes, it is typically called into session with an Address to the Divine Council.

For the LORD has spoken. (Isa 1:2)

A little later, following detailed specification of the charges brought against the defendant, the Judge then enters the courtroom:

The LORD rises to argue his case he stands to judge the peoples. The LORD enters into judgment with the elders and princes of his people. (Isa 3:13-14a) Similar imagery appears in Psalm 82, where the defendants are members of the divine council itself: God has taken his place in the divine council in the midst of the gods he holds judgment]. (v. 1)


Summary of Council Activities

A survey of passages mentioning the council members provides a general list of activities in which they engage. These include:

(1) praising and worshiping God (Deut 32:43; Isa 6:3; Pss 103:20-22, 148:1-6; Job 38:7; Neh 9:6);

(2) serving as ministers (Isa 6: 6-7; Ps 103:21);

(3) serving as witnesses, fellow judges, and bailiffs in YHVHs court (Isa 1:2; Ps 82:1-4; Zech 3:3-5);

(4) acting as Gods throne or chariot (Pss 18:10, 99:1);

(5) carrying Gods throne (Ezek 1, 10);

(6) serving as captains and soldiers in the supernatural army (Jos 5:14-15; 2 Kgs 6:17);

(7) interpreting visions (Zech 1:9, 19, 21; Dan 7:15-17, 8:15-19); and

(8) serving as shepherds of men or as patron angels of nations (Gen 48:15-16; Deut 32:8; Dan 10:21, 12:1).

The council operates

·     on a cosmic level, governing Gods universe;

·     on an earthly plane, governing Israel and nations; and

·     on an individual level, guiding and protecting the righteous believer (Jud 13:8; 2 Kgs 6:17; Ps 91:11)


These activities or functions are all relationalto YHVH. The council members do not act as autonomous divinities. There is no question who is Head of the assembly: YHVH makes decisions


Three primary theological images attributed to God in the Hebrew Bible. They include: King, Judge, and Warrior. Each reflects aspects of his position as head of the cosmic government. Corresponding to these positions, members of his council perform appropriate duties.


The picture of God as King points to his power and rule: power to control nature and history, and rule in the processes of ordering and governing. Thus, as entourage of the great king, the assembly pays homage to the monarch and carries out his rule by communicating the divine decrees.


Gods role as Judge affirms that there is ethical grounding to his reality and that the universe and human history are morally accountable. There will be, in the end, a vindication of the right.

Accordingly, YHVHs judicial members investigate the human situation, record the crimes, and lift the human outcry to God. They also carry out his verdicts of judgment.


The third image of God as Warrior points to his power to bring about a righteous rule and perform the plans of his heart. His assembly then marches with their Lord as a heavenly army, engaging the enemies of YHVH in holy war. Additionally, it is worth noting that all three flow out of YHVHs character as Sovereign Lord. He is Lord first, then King, Judge, and Warrior. Similarly, his servants function in four spheresreligious, monarchical, legal, military.


One of the main responsibilities of the council, is to maintain justice and righteousness in the universe. Righteousness can be understood as an all-encompassing cosmic order, a principle of moral orderliness of holiness as YHVH is Holy. Sin is the disobedience to YHVHs moral orderliness or injustice in the social sphere injects discord and shatters the peace. The council then exercises decisive acts of justice, thereby restoring peace on earth. 


This gives us a general idea of the divine council concept in the Hebrew Scriptures.

Friday, February 26, 2016



Strong’s Concordance Word Study


HELL = O.T. Strong’s 7585 = “ol” = grave, by extension, realm of death, deepest depths; transliterate “Sheol”

          = N.T. Strong’s     86 = Hades, the grave, the place of the dead (10 times)

          = N.T. Strong’s 1067 = Gehenna, hell, Valley of Hinnom

     = N.T. Strong’s 5020= Tartaroo =send to hell, hold captive = a place of torment lower than hades (the grave) in Greek and Jewish literature but not found in the N.T. (1 time; 2 Peter 2.4) = Final judgement in Lake of Fire


Grave = O.T. Strong’s 7585 = “ol” = grave, by extension, realm of death, deepest depths; transliterate Sheol”

            = 6919 = burial site, tomb, grave

            = 6605 = “patah” = open, to be opened, to loosen, release, take off

            = 6900 = Tomb, grave, burial, sepulcher (2 times)

            = 3419 Strong’s N.T. = tomb, grave, sepulcher (4 times)

Pit = hell - Gehenna - the grave, realm of the dead.


Hell= gehenna=hell=Valley of Hinnom Strong’s 1067= Matthew 5.22; 29-30; 10.28; 18.9; 23.15; 23.23. Mark 9.43-47. Luke 12.5. James 3.6.

Hell=Hades= the grave, the place of the dead (Strong’s 86). = Matthew 11.23; 16.18. Luke 10.15; 16.23. Acts 2.27; 31, Rev 1.18; 6.8; 20.13; 20.14


Pit = hell - Gehenna - the grave, realm of the dead.


The Unseen World

1. SHEOL - A total of 64 passages in the Bible mention Sheol. Genesis 37.35 is the first mention: And all his sons and all his daughters arose to comfort him; but he refused to be comforted, and he said, “For I shall go down into Sheol (the grave) to my son in mourning.” Thus his father wept for him. Jacob presumed he would join Joseph there in the grave.


But if the Lord creates a new thing, and the earth opens its mouth and swallows them up with all that belongs to them, and they go down alive into the pit (Sheol), then you will understand that these men have rejected the Lord.” Num 16.30

The rebellious Korah and followers were swallowed up into the grave (Sheol).


They are higher than heaven— what can you do? Deeper than Sheol (the grave) - what can you know? Job 11.8

Deeper than Sheol--downward, Sheol is always downward in scripture. The grave is down in the pit or hole dug.


As drought and heat consume the snow waters, So the grave (Sheol) consumes those who have sinned. Job 24.19


Sheol is naked before Him, and Destruction has no covering. Job 26.6 Naked before God in the grave.

For great is Your mercy toward me, and You have delivered my soul from the depths of the grave (Sheol). Ps 86.13

God’s love is great, He delivers us from death by resurrection from the dead!


What man can live and not see death? Can he deliver his life from the power of the grave? Selah Ps 89.48

All go there—to the grave - death.


If I ascend into heaven, You are there; If I make my bed in hell the grave (Sheol), behold, You are there. Ps 139.8

The Omni-presence of God is everywhere—even in the grave.

The wicked shall be turned into hell (the grave), and all the nations that forget God. Ps 9.17


For You will not leave my soul in Sheol, nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption. Ps 16.10

The resurrection of Messiah assured. Not left in the grave, but was there temporarily.


Sheol-the grave is a place both the righteous and unrighteous go: “Oh, that You would hide me in the grave (Sheol), that You would conceal me until Your wrath is past, that You would appoint me a set time, and remember me! Job 14.13


Sheol is worse for the unbeliever: Like sheep they are laid in the grave; Death shall feed on them; the upright shall have dominion over them in the morning; and their beauty shall be consumed in the grave, far from their dwelling. Ps 49.14

Also see Isaiah 14.9 below in Hell. Hell is the grave. The grave consumes the wicked—but we are resurrected! (Morning).


For great is Your mercy toward me, and You have delivered my soul from the depths of the grave (Sheol). Ps 86.13

Sheol is under God’s control: See Ps 139.8, Job 26.6. The resurrection from the dead will give us eternal life.


HELL - There is no word in the Bible for hell--the words are Sheol, Hades (Greek), Pit.


“Hell (Sheol) from beneath is excited about you, to meet you at your coming; it stirs up the dead for you, all the chief ones of the earth; it has raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations. Isaiah 14.9…all men go to hell—the grave.

But he does not know that the dead are there, that her guests are in the depths of the grave (hell). Proverbs 9.18


HADES - Hades is the Greek form of Sheol. There are 10 passages in the Bible, below are seven:


“And you, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades (the grave); for if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day.” Matt 11.23


And being in torments in Hades, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. Luke 16.23

For You will not leave my soul in Hades, Nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption. Acts 2.27/Ps 16.10

We must remember this is a parable…a parable is a story told to make a specific point…the point in this story was that the gentiles would be exchanging places with the Jewish people. The Gentiles would be in the place of honor: Abraham’s bosom…until the time of the gentiles is fulfilled.


…he, foreseeing this, spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades (the grave), nor did His flesh see corruption. Acts 2.31…Jesus body did not see corruption because he was resurrected from the grave!


And no one has ascended up to the heaven but he that came down from the heaven, even the Son of man, who is in the heaven. John 3.13


And you, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades (the pit or grave). Luke 10.15

The sea gave up the dead who were in it, and Death and Hades delivered up the dead who were in them. And they were judged, each one according to his works. Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire. Rev 20.13-15…the Lake of Fire is Gehenna or hell as we have been taught—the place of torment.



                                                                              Sheol, Hell, Hades

                                                                                 Pit, = the grave


                                                                           Abyss. Temporary

                                                                             Home of fallen



                                                                              Tartarus - A

                                                                                 place of

                                                                              confinement for fallen angels.


ABRAHAM’S BOSOM "Bosom of Abraham" refers to the place of comfort in the Biblical Sheol (or Hades in the Greek Septuagint version of the Hebrew scriptures from around 200 BC, and therefore so described in the New Testament) where the righteous dead await Judgment Day.

The word found in the Greek text for "bosom" is kolpos, meaning "lap" "bay" This relates to the Second Temple period practice of reclining and eating meals in proximity to other guests, the closest of whom physically was said to lie on the bosom (chest) of the host. (See John 13:23 )

While commentators generally agree upon the meaning of the "Bosom of Abraham", they disagree about its origins. Up to the time of Maldonatus (A.D. 1583), its origin was traced back to the universal custom of parents to take up into their arms, or place upon their knees, their children when they are fatigued, or return home, and to make them rest by their side during the night (cf. 2 Samuel 12:3; 1 Kings 3:20; 17:19; Luke 11:7), thus causing them to enjoy rest and security in the bosom of a loving parent. After the same manner was Abraham supposed to act towards his children after the fatigues and troubles of the present life, hence the metaphorical expression "to be in Abraham's Bosom" as meaning to be in repose and happiness with him.

It was also considered by the Jews of old a mark of special honor and favor for one to be allowed to lie in the bosom of the master of the feast (cf. John 13:23), and it is by this illustration that they pictured the next world. They conceived of the reward of the righteous dead as a sharing in a banquet given by Abraham, "the father of the faithful" (cf. Matthew 8:11), and of the highest form of that reward as lying in "Abraham's Bosom". Luke 16.19-3. Ref: Wikipedia online encyclopedia.

ABADDON - Is the angel of the Bottomless Pit: …And they had as king over them the angel of the bottomless pit, whose name in Hebrew is Abaddon, but in Greek he has the name Apollyon. Rev 9.11

Hell (the grave) and Destruction are before the Lord; So how much more the hearts of the sons of men. Proverbs 15.11


Hell and Destruction are never full; so the eyes of man are never satisfied. Proverbs 27.20

Abaddon is used negatively in all cases. Abaddon in the Greek means = “a destroying angel” see Rev 9.11


THE PIT - Referred to 23 times in the O. T, first as a negative place and second as a downward place. It is a descriptive name for Hades, Hell – that is, the grave.


ABYSS: Strong’s # 12 - The bottomless pit or chaotic deep in the nether world: And they begged Him that He would not command them to go out into the abyss. Luke 8.31


Abaddon the destroying angel opens the abyss: Then the fifth angel sounded: And I saw a star fallen from heaven to the earth. To him was given the key to the bottomless pit. Rev 9.1


Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, having the key to the bottomless pit and a great chain in his hand. He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal on him, so that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years were finished. But after these things he must be released for a little while. Rev 20.1-3


The abyss is always downward and associated with fallen angels. The fallen angels and Satan are bound in the pit for a thousand years, ref. Rev 9.


For if God did not spare the angels who sinned, but cast them down to hell and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved for judgment; 2 Peter 2.4


TARTARUS - Only reference is 2 Peter 2.4 - Pits of darkness, confinement for fallen angels.


And the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode, He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgment of the great day; Jude 6


A place for special fallen angels that sinned in Noah’s time. Gen 6.1-4: Now it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves of all whom they chose. and the Lord said, “My Spirit shall not strive with man forever, for he is indeed flesh; yet his days shall be one hundred and twenty years.” There were giants on the earth in those days, and also afterward, when the sons of God came in to the daughters of men and they bore children to them. Those were the mighty men who were of old, men of renown.

These will never be freed. They are reserved unto judgment.


GEHENNA - A place outside the walls of Jerusalem. Means Valley of Hinnom, also known as Topheth. It was a place of human sacrifice practiced by the wicked kings of Israel. It is the Lake of Fire at the final judgment.


And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter pass through the fire to Molech. 2 Kings 23.10


He burned incense in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, and burned his children in the fire, according to the abominations of the nations whom the Lord had cast out before the children of Israel. 2 Chron 28.3


For Tophet was established of old, yes, for the king it is prepared. He has made it deep and large; its pyre is fire with much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, kindles it. Isaiah 30.33


And they have built the high places of Tophet, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire, which I did not command, nor did it come into My heart. “Therefore behold, the days are coming,” says the Lord, “when it will no more be called Tophet, or the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, but the Valley of Slaughter; for they will bury in Tophet until there is no room. Jeremiah 7.31-32 ref Jeremiah 19.1-15


It became a place for physical human burning and refuse outside the walls of the city. GEI-HINNOM = Gehenna

Became a metaphor as the eternal abode for all unbelievers (angels and men), as a place of punishment for both body and soul, and a place of eternal torment. Torment is FIRE - this is a spiritual fire that produces no light. This is the Lake of Fire!


But I say to you that whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment. And whoever says to his brother, ‘Raca!’ shall be in danger of the council. But whoever says, ‘You fool!’ shall be in danger of hell fire. Matt 5.22


If your right eye causes you to sin, pluck it out and cast it from you; for it is more profitable for you that one of your members perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and cast it from you; for it is more profitable for you that one of your members perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell. Matt 5.29-30



Then the beast was captured, and with him the false prophet who worked signs in his presence, by which he deceived those who received the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image. These two were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone. Rev 19.20


The devil, who deceived them, was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone where the beast and the false prophet are. And they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. Rev 20.10

Then Death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. Rev 20.14

But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.” Rev 21.8


Eternal abode of all unbelievers (angels and men). Punishment of body and soul. Fire and brimstone. synonymous with Gehenna (descriptive name).


PARADISE – Means Gan Eden in Hebrew = garden. Term used for the abode of the righteous (believers). Same as Abraham’s Bosom.

Abraham’s Bosom:

And Jesus said to him, “Assuredly, I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise Gan Eden).  Luke 23.43

Third Heaven:

…how he was caught up into Paradise and heard inexpressible words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter. 2 Cor 12.4

New Jerusalem:

“He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes I will give to eat from the tree of life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of God.” Rev 2.7


At the end of the age the earth is going to become as Gan Eden…the Garden of Eden.


HEAVEN - The Abode of God - The Three Heavens

1st Heaven - The Atmosphere -Gen 1.20: Then God said, “Let the waters abound with an abundance of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the face of the firmament of the heavens.”


2nd Heaven - Outer Space - Gen 1.14: Then God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs and seasons, and for days and years;


3rd Heaven - Paradise, Abode of God - 2 Corinthians 12.1-4: It is doubtless not profitable for me to boast. I will come to visions and revelations of the Lord: I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago—whether in the body I do not know, or whether out of the body I do not know, God knows—such a one was caught up to the third heaven. And I know such a man—whether in the body or out of the body I do not know, God knows— 4 how he was caught up into Paradise and heard inexpressible words, which it is not lawful for a man to utter.


Then he dreamed, and behold, a ladder was set up on the earth, and its top reached to heaven; and there the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. And behold, the Lord stood above it and said: “I am the Lord God of Abraham your father and the God of Isaac; the land on which you lie I will give to you and your descendants. Gen 28.12-13

Indeed heaven and the highest heavens belong to the Lord your God, also the earth with all that is in it. Deut 10.14

Look down from Your holy habitation, from heaven, and bless Your people Israel and the land which You have given us, just as You swore to our fathers, “a land flowing with milk and honey.” Deut 26.15

Ref: Matt 5.12; 5.34; 1 Thess 4.16; Heb 8.1 Throne of Majesty.

Three eyewitnesses to the existence of the Third Heaven: A. Yeshua, John 6, B. Paul, 2 Cor 12.1-4, C. John, Rev 15.6

It is the abode of God and the elect angels. It is a definite place - always above, earth, sky, heaven. The place God rules, receives worship, home of believers.


THE NEW JERUSALEM - Above the earth, Abode of God and elect angels, redeemed saints, and a synonym for heaven. The eternal home for all believers for eternity at the end of the MK (Millennial Kingdom). Trees there will produce healing fruit each month for all time.

…but the Jerusalem above is free, which is the mother of us all. Gal 4.26

But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect, to Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaks better things than that of Abel. Heb 12.22-24 Ref Rev 21.1-22.5



Sheol, Hades, Hell, Abaddon, the Pit - all synonymous = the pit or grave = death and burial.


Then I will bring you down with those who descend into the Pit, to the people of old, and I will make you dwell in the lowest part of the earth, in places desolate from antiquity, with those who go down to the Pit, so that you may never be inhabited; and I shall establish glory in the land of the living. Ezekiel 26.20


“There is Elam and all her multitude, all around her grave, all of them slain, fallen by the sword, who have gone down uncircumcised to the lower parts of the earth, who caused their terror in the land of the living; Now they bear their shame with those who go down to the Pit. Ezekiel 32.24


For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth (grave). Matt 12.40


(Now this, “He ascended”—what does it mean but that He also first descended into the lower parts of the earth (the grave)? He who descended is also the One who ascended far above all the heavens, that He might fill all things.) Eph 4.9-10

Ref Ezekiel 31.14-18


Gehenna (Technical name) - Lake of Fire (Descriptive name) - Final abode of unbelievers and fallen angels.


Heaven - Abode of God, elect angels, and New Jerusalem (Future).


                                                                         ---Heaven Above----     


                                                                              Sheol, Hell, Hades

                                                                               Pit, = the grave


                                                                           Abyss. Temporary                    

                                                                             Home of fallen



                                                                              Tartarus - A per-

                                                                              manent place of



                                                                             Abaddon or Apollyon =

                                                                                Destroying Angel 

                                                                          -------------------------------                                                                                         A                                                                           Abraham’s Bosom =              

                                                                        The place of comfort or honor    
                                                             A term for resting in peace – Asleep in the grave